Property Boundaries and Encroachment Issues in Ontario

Navigate property boundaries, encroachments, and real estate law in Ontario with the help of a real estate lawyer in Ottawa.

Written By

Todd Ji, real estate lawyer

Todd Ji

Published On

July 11, 2023


Understanding property boundaries and encroachments can help you avoid disputes and maintain good relationships with your neighbours. Let’s do a detailed analysis of property boundaries, encroachments, property rights, and why you need a real estate lawyer in Ottawa to help you with your real estate law issues in Ontario.

Understanding Property Boundaries

Property boundaries define the extent of your property and distinguish your land from that of your neighbours or the public. In Ontario, property boundaries are typically defined in your property deed, registered at the Land Registry Office.

An understanding of your exact property boundaries is essential not just for establishing who owns what, but also for practical reasons such as home renovations, installing a fence, planting a garden, or any other use of the land that might cross into another's property.

A Land Survey Report, prepared by a licensed Ontario Land Surveyor, can provide a detailed and accurate picture of the property boundaries. This report typically includes physical features, measurements, and any possible encroachments on your land.

Property Rights in Ontario

In Ontario, the Property and Civil Rights Act governs property rights. It includes rules about property ownership, the right to use the property, and remedies for disputes related to property. The act states that owners have the right to peaceful enjoyment of their property. This means that they can use the land as they see fit, provided that it does not infringe on the rights of others, violate any by-laws, or breach any statutory regulations.

Property owners also have the right to exclude others from their property and to defend their property against encroachments. However, this does not mean they can take the law into their hands when a dispute arises; all disputes must be resolved lawfully.

Encroachments: A Common Source of Dispute

Encroachment occurs when a neighbour's building or other structure intrudes onto your property. Common examples include a fence, driveway, or extension that crosses over the boundary line. In Ontario, if a structure encroaches onto another person's property, the person whose property is being encroached upon has several legal rights and remedies.

One crucial aspect of encroachment is the "doctrine of adverse possession," often colloquially referred to as squatter's rights. However, it is important to note that the rules for adverse possession changed in Ontario with the introduction of the Land Titles Act. Under this Act, it is much harder to claim ownership of a piece of land simply by using it. However, there may still be circumstances under which such a claim might be possible, making it a complicated area of law.

Legal Recourse for Boundary and Encroachment Disputes

In the case of a boundary or encroachment dispute in Ontario, there are several legal avenues available.


Mediation involves hiring a neutral third-party mediator who can help the parties negotiate and come to a mutually agreeable solution. Mediation is generally a more cost-effective and faster solution than going to court.

Trespass Claim

If a neighbour encroaches on your property, you can sue for trespass in civil court. If successful, you may be awarded damages, and the court may order the removal of the encroaching structure.

Application for a Minor Variance

If an encroachment is minor, the encroaching neighbour may apply for a minor variance from the local municipality. If granted, this would legalize the encroachment.

Adverse Possession

In very limited situations, an individual might be able to claim ownership over the disputed land under the doctrine of adverse possession.

Mitigating Property Boundary Disputes

To avoid potential disputes, property owners should always have a clear understanding of their property boundaries, preferably based on a recent survey. In addition, understanding local zoning laws and by-laws with the help of a real estate lawyer can help property owners so that they are not inadvertently breaking any rules.

Open communication with neighbours can often prevent misunderstandings from escalating into legal disputes. If a dispute does arise, legal advice should be sought promptly to understand the rights and responsibilities and explore potential solutions.

Navigating property boundaries and encroachment issues in Ontario can be complicated and stressful. It requires a sound understanding of the Property and Civil Rights Act, local by-laws, and the ability to navigate the local legal system. However, with clear communication, understanding, and, if necessary, legal assistance, these disputes can often be resolved amicably and to the satisfaction of all parties.

Importance of Understanding Your Rights as a Property Owner

Knowing your rights as a property owner in Ontario is essential to maintaining control over your property and preventing potential disputes. The province provides a robust framework of rights and responsibilities for property owners, from the right to peaceful enjoyment of your land to the responsibility to respect the property boundaries established in your land survey.

As an owner, you have the right to exclude others from your property and defend it against encroachments. You can control what happens on your property, within the limits of municipal zoning laws, building codes, and environmental regulations. If a neighbour’s tree grows over into your yard, or their structure encroaches onto your land, knowing your rights allows you to address these situations legally and appropriately.

Understanding your rights also helps in making informed decisions. When contemplating a property-related activity, like erecting a new fence or adding a deck, knowing your boundaries can save you from potential encroachments and related disputes. It also guides you in seeking the appropriate permits and abiding by applicable laws.

The Risks of Navigating Property Boundaries or Encroachment Disputes without a Real Estate Lawyer

Navigating property boundaries and encroachment disputes without legal counsel comes with its risks. Real estate law is complex, and a misunderstanding or misapplication can lead to serious consequences.

One major risk involves potentially violating your neighbour's rights. If you mistakenly believe you own a piece of property that belongs to your neighbour, any alterations you make could lead to costly legal battles. This could involve not just the removal of the encroaching structure, but also potential damages for trespass.

Without a real estate lawyer, you may also be unaware of some of your rights, such as the potential to assert a claim of adverse possession or seek a minor variance. This lack of knowledge could lead you to make decisions that may not be in your best interests.

Of course, trying to resolve an encroachment dispute without legal guidance may lead to escalating tensions between you and your neighbour. An experienced real estate lawyer can provide objective advice and can help negotiate or mediate the dispute, aiming to preserve relationships wherever possible.

Get in Touch with TDJ Law to Speak with a Real Estate Lawyer in Ottawa about Encroachment or Property Boundary Issues

Property boundary and encroachment issues can be a legal minefield. But you don't have to navigate it alone. TDJ Law, a leading law firm based in Ottawa, specializes in real estate law and can provide the expert guidance you need.

At TDJ Law, our real estate lawyers are well-versed in Ontario property laws, and have years of experience handling boundary and encroachment disputes. Get in touch with us to get a free quote.